WASH (Water, Sanitation & Hygiene) Project Proposals in Pakistan, Tanzania and Uganda
Portable drinking water and basic sanitation are of primary importance for human survival and well-being. People not only need water for survival, but access to safe, clean drinking water to lead a healthy lifestyle and for sanitation purposes. According to recent estimates, about 15% of the world population (1 billion people) do not have access to safe drinking water, and 35% (2.4 billion people) do not have access to adequate sanitation. These people are primarily concentrated in developing countries.
Pakistan has made significant progress in improving access to sanitation, yet 25 million people still practice open defecation. Lack of access to proper sanitation facilities negatively impact the health and well-being of children, and exposes them to contracting COVID-19. 53,000 Pakistani children under the age of five die annually from diarrhea due to poor water and sanitation with an estimated 70 percent of households still drinking contaminated water (UNICEF).
Children suffering from repeated episodes of diarrhea are likely to fall behind in school or drop out altogether. Furthermore, it can also cause stunting that currently affects almost 44 percent of children in Pakistan. Additionally, in Pakistan, 1 in 3 schools lack sanitation facilities. These factors expose children significantly to COVID-19 and other microbial & communicable diseases that can make them sick and prevent them from attending school. Particularly, a large number of school-going girls either drop-out or are discouraged to go to school on reaching puberty. Particularly in Sindh, more than 53% of the schools have no drinking water & around 49% have no toilet facility (2018). The situation is very similar in Punjab & newly merged districts of KPK where thousands of returnees are still in process of settlements.
For the proposed project, WF-AID are partnering with Human Appeal who will deliver the project through their expertise in the region as well as generally in the field. 10 government primary schools will be selected in District Rawalpindi, Punjab (approved as one of the priority areas in the Country Strategic Plan) whereby an initial assessment will be conducted based on the criteria to assess lack of drinking water, hygiene & sanitation facilities and water quality issues resulting in higher water borne diseases, poor attendance & dropout of girls in schools.
The schools will be identified in consultation with the District Government where, School Management Committees (SMCs) will be briefed on operations, maintenance and sustainability of the WASH facilities. Furthermore the students’ health clubs will be formulated in each school, separate clubs for girls & boys, making students as change agents on hygiene education in respective schools & communities. The girl’s health clubs shall also as resource person train & sensitize other girls & women on menstrual hygiene management (MHM), personal, domestic & environmental hygiene in schools & communities.
Based on the identified survey, the selected schools shall be provided with the missing drinking water, hygiene stations, water coolers & solid waste bins. The school children shall also be provided with basic hygiene education throughout the project along with COVID awareness & sensitization of potential health risks like dengue etc. along with the display of IEC materials in respective schools. The installations once complete will be handed over to the School Management Committees (SMCs) for future operations and maintenance.
The project, while directly contributing to Sustainable Development Goal 6- Clean Water & Sanitation, and SDG3- health & well-being, is also indirectly contributing towards SDG 4, Inclusive & Quality Education reducing health expenditures and increasing children’s attendance & enrollment in schools. In addition, the project would also serve as a tool to utilize students as change agents in respective schools & neighboring communities to improve community health, hygiene & sanitation practices.
Direct beneficiaries: (including target groups within the schools benefiting at the output level of the project)
- Girls: 1,000. Women: 25
- Boys, 1,000. Men: 25
- Total: 2,050
Indirect beneficiaries: (benefiting at the outcome level of the project, i.e. those within the catchment area and household members).
- Girls: 2,822. Women: 3,057. Total: 5,879
- Boys: 2,937. Men: 3,182. Total: 6,119
- Total: ~12,000
Project Costs & Budgeting
Current PKR to GBP exchange rate: 195
Project cost in GBP: £21,000
USD equivalent: $26,250
Remote villages across Tanzania suffer from a severe shortage of clean water, where numerous requests are sent to our ground partner from various schools, churches, mosques, hospitals, community centres, tribal and village nobles on a frequent basis. Conditions are often miserable, with people drinking water from local dirty ponds. The ground team has conducted an inspection in various areas, with there being a need for the installation of traditional hand pumps in some areas and sludge pumps in others. This will empower the local communities to lead a better lifestyle by providing clean drinking water facilities to individuals, enabling them to mobilise their resources and capacity.
The water programme will be carried out in villages across Tanzania – from Mwanza to Horohoro on the Kenyan border, to Handeni and Mafia Island. For enhanced quality and sustainability, the digging will be carried out during the dry season to ensure the water bed reached is at a realistic level and not due to the rains. Midway through the project, an inspection will be carried out, with a final inspection to be conducted by the supervisor. A local committee is arranged for each well, who will manage the daily maintenance of the well; they will be given training by the ground team technicians to conduct small repairs needed in a timely manner. For larger issues, the committee will contact our ground team directly to intervene. This seeks to promote education for the community and boost the local economy.
The Ashura sludge well project benefits approx 500 individuals on a daily basis in the locality of the well, whereas the Karbala shallow wells have approx 150 beneficiaries utilising the traditional method of fetching water.
Project Costs & Budgeting
‘Ashura’ Sludge Well Water Project
- SDM sludge drill well – each unit costs USD $2,500
- 25 units required for the total proposed project costing USD $62,500
- WF-AID operational charge (5%) of $3,125
‘Karbala’ Shallow Well Water Project
- Traditional well in villages – each unit costs USD $1,750
- 25 units required for the total proposed project costing USD $43,750
- WF-AID operational charge (5%) of $2,188
WF-AID will maintain a 5% operational and logistics cost for the whole project to ensure that it is successfully delivered, administering the sustainability rating and meeting SDG’s (sustainable development goals) as well as a comprehensive report is provided to yourself. We will assess whether it is possible for a staff member to witness the project at first hand with the ground team upon project completion.
Upon receiving many appeals from would-be beneficiaries, our ground agency in Uganda dispatched its field officers to nearly forty villages in the three districts of Kibuku, Bukedea and Pallisa districts to carry out a needs assessment of the situation. The findings showed that access to clean safe water in certain villages within the aforementioned districts is extremely difficult, primarily due to the lack of infrastructure. Lack of access to safe and adequate water in the area has forced the population to fetch water from unprotected wells, streams and ponds. It is also noted that the existing gender roles in the villages reflects that water fetching is the responsibility of women and girls, where it is revealed that women spend long periods searching for water; the average time spent is estimated to be a total of 4-5 hours per trip, where it is not uncommon to have 2-3 trips in a day. It was also noted that the areas from which women collect water from are not safe and poses safety risks, particularly to girls.
The district health officer has specifically said that the issue of water in the district urgently needs intervention as the situation is out of reach of government control. He clearly noted that water borne diseases like amoeba, typhoid and bacillary dysentery are the commonly registered cases at the health centres, which is not being met by increases in governmental health expenditure.
Therefore, WF-AID will be facilitating the repair and maintenance of existing boreholes as well as the installation of new hand dug water wells in three districts of Uganda, in order to make vast improvements in the livelihoods of beneficiaries and the local community by alleviating water scarcity and its associated pitfalls. The estimated time to retrieve water will fall to thirty minutes as a direct/immediate benefit, along with the importance of the water being clean to drink. Furthermore, the community will have clean water for use in homes, such as when washing clothes and utensils, as well as for ‘home gardens’ where the community can rear livestock.
This alludes to the multitude of indirect/secondary benefits, such as boosting agricultural activities with the clean water ensuring the livestock and crops are free of parasites. Furthermore, the time saved in searching for water will enable women to embark on other productive activities that can contribute to income generation as well as the overall welfare and wellbeing of the community. This will also improve health-conscious behaviour, which in turn will lower expenses on medication – thereby creating a cyclical boost in the local community.
The study and design of water provisions will primarily focus on existing ruined water sources, structures and sites – which will be repaired and maintained through the replacement of parts such as pipes, rods, valves, pedestals, head assemblies, cylinders and others. The project seeks to repair and maintain 30 boreholes across the three districts.
The project will also implement hand dug well (HDW) technologies based on the existing water map of the targeted area. HDW’s will supplement existing/spoiled water sources, being a traditional method of obtaining groundwater in rural areas of the developing world. The wells will be lined to prevent pollution, with the ‘super structure’ preventing drainage issues waste water seeping back into the wells as well as quality material being used in order for the beneficiaries to conveniently source and pump water.
In this project, the anticipation is to build nine HDW’s. The project will undergo the following stages:
1) Project initiation meeting with stakeholders and diligent preparation of the work plan.
2) Site visit and second inspection of the boreholes to determine the parts to be installed in case of repair.
3) Selection of vendors and procurement of equipment.
4) Selection of local contractors to dig water wells and repair boreholes.
5) Monitoring, supervision and training of village health teams on sanitation and proper usage of the wells.
Project Costs & Budgeting
The donor visibility costs ensures that your chosen banner is displayed during the construction phase and your plaque text will be at the site of each WASH project. Such marketing material will also be utilised by the agencies to champion the project, featuring in social media and local news outlets where applicable.
Any ISC (indirect support costs) fall under WF-AID’s operational costs, which refer to the monitoring and evaluation of the project for up to 12 months after project completion (and longer if necessary amidst the current situation); this includes any maintenance costs that may be incurred following project delivery. WF-AID will be taking a small 5% administration charge to ensure the above can be facilitated and to cover project completion ground assessments where possible. A comprehensive report will be provided to the Mohsin & Fauzia Jaffer Foundation USA upon completion of the projects.